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10 Apr 2010
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22 Jul 2010

Index-Glossary

 

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A form / statement: Categorical Logic

absurd (adj): logically impossible; contradictory.

absurdity, reduction to: (See "reduction to absurdity")

acceptable / acceptability: Basic Concepts

active mood: Basic Concepts

ad baculum: List of Fallacies

ad hominem: List of Fallacies

ad ignorantium: List of Fallacies

ad misericordiam: List of Fallacies

ad populum: List of Fallacies

ad ridiculam: List of Fallacies

ad verecundiam: List of Fallacies

addition (of a disjunct): Symbolic Logic

affirming the consequent: List of Fallacies

affirming a disjunct: List of Fallacies

agent: (See "agent-patient relationship")

agent-patient relationship: Basic Concepts

alternate: Symbolic Logic; (See "disjunct")

ambiguity: Common Fallacies

amphiboly: List of Fallacies

analogy: Basic Concepts

AND, binary operator: Symbolic Logic

antecedent (of a condition): Symbolic Logic

appeal against the person (ad hominem): List of Fallacies

appeal to belief: List of Fallacies

appeal to common practice: List of Fallacies

appeal to consequences of belief: List of Fallacies

appeal to emotion: List of Fallacies

appeal to fear or force (ad baculum): List of Fallacies

appeal to the people (ad populum): List of Fallacies

appeal to pity (ad misericordiam): List of Fallacies

appeal to unreliable authority (ad verecundiam): List of Fallacies

argument: Basic Concepts

Aristotle's square of opposition: (See "square of opposition")

association (mental process): Introduction

association (of terms) / associative: Symbolic Logic

assumption: Basic Concepts

attribute (n): a quality or characteristic inherent in or ascribed to someone or something.


begging the question (petitio principii) / circular reasoning:
List of Fallacies

belief: Introduction; Basic Concepts

bi-condition: Symbolic Logic


categorical logic
(n): the field of logic dealing with things or concepts as classified and grouped according to specific attributes.

category (n): a group of things or concepts which share a common attribute or group of attributes.

cause (n): something that produces an effect.

charity (n): the practice of interpreting an ambiguous line of reasoning in its most favorable light.

charity, principle of: (See "principle of charity")

circular reasoning: (See "begging the question")

claim (n) the idea asserted by a statement; (vt) to make an assertion.

cogent / cogency: Basic Concepts

coherent / coherence: Basic Concepts

common sense: Introduction; Basic Concepts

commutation (of terms) / commutative: Symbolic Logic

complement (n): the shorthand representation of the negation of a categorical concept "X" as "non-X," e.g., "All cats are non-dogs."

complex question: List of Fallacies

composition: Common Fallacies; List of Fallacies

conclusion: Basic Concepts

condition (conditional proposition): Symbolic Logic

conjunct: Symbolic Logic

conjunction: Symbolic Logic

consequent (of a condition): Symbolic Logic

consistent / consistency: Basic Concepts

constructive dilemma: Symbolic Logic

contingent (adj): true only under certain conditions.

contradiction (n): in logic, an absurd situation in which the affirmation and the negation of the same claim are found to be either both true or both false at the same time and place.

contradictory (adj): Categorical Logic

contraposition: Symbolic Logic

contrary: Categorical Logic

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deduction / deductive: Basic Concepts

DeMorgan's laws: Implication & Equivalence

denying the antecedent: List of Fallacies

diagram, Venn: (See "Venn diagram")

dichotomy: a choice limited to two opposing extremes, with no option of middle ground or compromise.

dilemma: a choice between two options (or among a limited number of options).

disjunct: Symbolic Logic

disjunction: Symbolic Logic

disjunctive syllogism: Symbolic Logic

division: Common Fallacies; List of Fallacies

double negation: Symbolic Logic


E
form / statement:
Categorical Logic

effect: something produced by a cause.

elenchus (n): a dialectal method of argumentation (used extensively by Socrates, and still much used in courts of law) relying on a dialogue of related questions and responses to identify associations and contradictions, thereby to discern a consistent path of reasoning.

empirical (adj): derived from observation or experiment (Compare to "rational").

enthymeme (n): an argument with a premise or conclusion that is unstated, but is either implied or presumed to be inferred by the audience.

equivocation: Common Fallacies; List of Fallacies

evidence: Basic Concepts

exclusive OR (XOR): Symbolic Logic


fact:
Basic Concepts

fairness (n) the practice of interpreting a line of reasoning with maximum fidelity to the intent of the original.

fairness, principle of: (See "principle of fairness")

fallacy / fallacious: Common Fallacies

figure (of a syllogism): Categorical Syllogism

form (of a statement): Categorical Logic

formal error: List of Fallacies

formal logic (n): the field of logic having to do with logical structure and function, as represented in abstract notation.

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gambler's fallacy: List of Fallacies

genetic fallacy: List of Fallacies

ground: Basic Concepts

grouping of operations: Symbolic Logic


hierarchy of operations: Symbolic Logic

hypothesis (n): a logical conjecture stated in such a way that it can be tested in order to discern whether it is actually true or false.

hypothetical syllogism: Symbolic Logic


I
form / statement:
Categorical Logic

IF, binary operator: Symbolic Logic

IFF (IF AND ONLY IF), binary operator: Symbolic Logic

implication: Symbolic Logic; Categorical Logic

imply (vt): to demonstrate through reasoning that an idea is probably or necessarily true.

incoherence / incoherent: See "coherent"

induction / inductive: Basic Concepts

infer: to become aware through reasoning that an idea is most probably or necessarily true.

inference: an idea which can be inferred from a line of reasoning.

informal logic (n): the fields of logic primarily concerned with matters other than structure and function.

interpretation: Basic Concepts

invalid / invalidity: (See "valid")

irrelevant / irrelevance: (See "relevant")

irrelevant premise: Common Fallacies

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judgment (n): the outcome of an evaluation.


knowledge:
Introduction


linkage:
Basic Concepts

logic (n): a methodical system of reasoning that relies on rational relationships among ideas to draw reliable inferences.

logical operator: Symbolic Logic

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major premise: Categorical Logic

major term: Categorical Logic

middle term: Categorical Logic

minor premise: Categorical Logic

minor term: Categorical Logic

modus ponens: Symbolic Logic

modus tollens: Symbolic Logic

mood (of a sentence): Basic Concepts; (of a syllogism): Categorical Logic

multiple negation (See "double negation")


necessarily false
(adj): logically incapable of being true under any circumstances, e.g. "A triangle has four angles."

necessarily true (adj): logically incapable of being false under any circumstances, e.g., "A triangle is a polygon with exactly three sides and three angles."

negation: Symbolic Logic

negation of operations: Symbolic Logic

non sequitur: List of Fallacies

NOT, unary operator: Symbolic Logic

notation: Symbolic Logic


O
form / statement:
Categorical Logic

Ockham's razor: as applied to logic, a maxim that, of all consistent and coherent explanations that adequately explain an idea without being in conflict with evidence, the simplest is most likely to be true.

operand: Symbolic Logic

operations, hierarchy of: (See "hierarchy of operations")

operator, logical: Symbolic Logic

OR, binary operator: Symbolic Logic

OR, inclusive and exclusive senses of: Symbolic Logic

ordering of operations: (Symbolic Logic)

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particular statement: Categorical Logic

passive mood: Basic Concepts

patient: (See "agent-patient relationship")

petitio principii: List of Fallacies

post hoc ergo propter hoc: List of Fallacies

predicate (of a sentence): Basic Concepts

predicate logic (n): the field of logic dealing with symbolic representation of categorical terms and statements.

predicate term: Categorical Logic

premise: Basic Concepts

principle of charity: Basic Concepts

principle of fairness: Basic Concepts

proposition (n): a statement, so called because it proposes that some idea is true.

proposition logic: (n): the branch of symbolic logic that studies an abstract representation of a deductive argument by substituting a letter of the alphabet for each of its statements.  Symbolic Logic


quantifier
(n): a word indicating whether a categorical statement applies to ALL, SOME, or NO members of a group named by the associated term.

question-begging: (See "begging the question")


rational
(adj): lucid; logical; derived from logical reasoning (Compare to "empirical").

reason / reasoning: Basic Concepts

reasoning, circular: (See "begging the question")

reasoning, deductive: (See "deduction")

reasoning, fallacious: (See "fallacy").

reasoning, inductive: (See "induction")

red herring: List of Fallacies

reduction to absurdity / reductio ad absurdum: a strategy of logical reasoning which shows an assumption to be false by demonstrating that assuming it to be true inevitably leads to a contradiction.

reification: List of Fallacies

relevant / relevance: Basic Concepts

rhetoric: Basic Concepts

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simplification: Symbolic Logic

sorites (n): a series of "chained" categorical premises which leads to a conclusion about the first and last terms.

sound / soundness (of an argument): Basic Concepts

square of opposition: Categorical Logic

statement: Basic Concepts

statement logic: (See "proposition logic")

straw man: List of Fallacies

strong / strength: Basic Concepts

stylistic variant: Categorical Logic

subcontrary: Categorical Logic

subject (of a sentence): Basic Concepts

subject term: Categorical Logic

sufficient / sufficiency: Basic Concepts

syllogism: Categorical Logic

syllogism, categorical: (See "categorical syllogism")

syllogism, disjunctive: (See "disjunctive syllogism")

syllogism, hypothetical: (See "hypothetical syllogism")

symbolic logic: (n): a field of logic dealing with logical structure and function as studied in the abstract by means of symbolic notation; symbolic logic includes subfields of proposition logic, predicate logic; Symbolic Logic


tautology
(n): a claim that is true regardless of the truth values of its component statements.

term (of a syllogism): Categorical Logic

truth: Basic Concepts

truth, necessary: (See necessary truth)

truth table: Symbolic Logic

truth value: Basic Concepts


uncogent:
(See "cogent")

undistributed middle term: List of Fallacies

universal statement: Categorical Logic

unsound: (See "sound")

unwarranted assumption: Fallacies

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valid / validity: Basic Concepts

Venn diagram: Categorical Logic


warrant:
Basic Concepts

weak / weakness (of an argument): (See "strength")


XOR: (See "exclusive OR")

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" (ALL): universal quantifier symbol.

$ (SOME): existential quantifier symbol.

^ (FALSE): truth-value=not-true symbol.

∙ / * / & (AND): conjunction operator symbols; Symbolic Logic

→ / (IF): condition operator symbols; Symbolic Logic

↔ / ≡ (IFF / IF AND ONLY IF): bi-condition operator symbols; Symbolic Logic

~ /   (NOT): negation operator symbols; Symbolic Logic

(OR [inclusive]): disjunction operator symbol; Symbolic Logic

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